The Caerau Hillfort Dig 2015

A blog by Exploring the Past student and volunteer Midnight

On Monday 6th July I returned to the archaeological dig at Caerau Hillfort for the third year in a row. Together with my trusty support worker, and with trowel in hand, I was rearing to go.

Unlike previous years where the weather has been baking hot and extremely bright, the Monday was grey, overcast and we even had a few showers. However, this helped keep the dust from the digging to a minimum.

As there was insufficient space for me to layout for digging in Trench 3, I was assigned to sieving. I was using a large rectangular sieve set in a tripod structure to go through the buckets of soil from Trench 3 to start with. I didn’t find anything, unfortunately, but others have found pottery shards and the like in Trench 3 over the last 2 weeks.

Sieving at Trench 5a
Sieving at Trench 5a

After the break I was assigned to Trench 5a and with my lovely assistant Ellen (I do hope I’ve spelt that right), we used a similar large sieve to go through the soil coming from Trench 5a. Whilst Ellen found numerous bits of pottery and even a small fragment of bone, I only found a thick pottery sherd. Dating of these sherds is hesitant at present and we await the arrival of a pottery expert to assist with this.

Despite the showers and slightly lower temperature, today was productive and insightful, and I eagerly awaited tomorrow’s adventure!

Tuesday 7th was a wet world! As the wind guested and clouds moved across the sky, one minute sunny, the next gray; I sat under a small gazebo and washed finds from Trench 3. To wash finds you need a tray with the finds in, a tray with some newspaper laid down, a bowl of clean water and a toothbrush. Gently brushing the find with a damp toothbrush, the soil and debris on the find is removed to reveal what lies beneath. Warning, never dip the find in the water!

Cleaning finds under the Gazebo
Cleaning finds under the Gazebo

I worked mainly on different types of pottery and some bone fragments. The pottery was interesting and I mainly cleaned three types; thin, black ware; medium dark brown ware and thick coarse ware. We await a pottery specialist to accurately date there fragments but as they were found in a Roman age midden it’s fair to say they may be Roman in age. Some of these fragments had slightly visible patterns and faint ridges or lines as well as edges.

Cleaning finds is as important to an archaeological dig as the digging itself. Without careful logging, cleaning and preservation of the finds we would have little idea about the use and relative age of the site. It’s also exciting to hold something in your hand that may have last been held 100’s of years ago and wonder if it was a precious, cared for possession or if it was a ubiquitous transportation vessel and given as little thought then as the thought we give the bottles we drink out of today.

Digging square 33 in Trench 3
Digging square 33 in Trench 3

Wednesday was all about ‘square 33 and the hidden treasure’! Despite the rain and the gooey chocolate cake like mud, I was laid out in trench three, digging a Roman midden! We used a slightly different technique to dig here, excavating the midden in squares so that all finds could be recorded accurately.

I was allocated square 33 which was 50×50 cm and asked to dig down 10 cm’s; sieving as I went. At first the going was tough and the site seemed barren. However, I did find (after a couple of hours of digging) a small fragment of white bone, possibly animal; and a little while later a large fragment of Oxford pottery.

Digging is obviously the most important part and main focus of an archaeological dig. It’s important to be careful while digging not to accidentally destroy finds with over enthusiastic use of the trowel. It’s important to note this as one digs down through time.

Bone fragment
Bone fragment

While I didn’t finish my square in the time allocated, overall today was a productive and exciting day.



Our on-site animation studio ...
Our on-site animation studio …

CAER Heritage Project community digs are nothing if not groundbreaking (no pun intended) but this time we really feel that we have pioneered a first in archaeology – by creating a hi-tec animation studio directly on site.

Working with CAER Heritage Project lead artist Paul Evans, and film maker Jon Harrison, pupils from Glyn Derw High School and Michaelston Community College worked in small groups with the latest technology to create short animation sequences for our forthcoming film ‘CAER HEDZ’.

Everyone on site created their own ‘Celtic Head’ …
Over 40 were made in total, each a uniquely creative response to the same subject ...
Over 40 were made in total, each a uniquely creative response to the same subject …

Then, during lunchtime, everyone on site – including young people, community volunteers and Cardiff University archaeologists – downed tools to each make an individual ‘Celtic Head’ based on Iron Age examples. Over 40 heads were made in this way – revealing an amazing amount of skill and creativity – and contributing to ‘a unique, collective, creative moment’.

CAER Heritage project directors Dave and Olly looking focussed on the task in hand ...
CAER Heritage project directors Dave and Olly looking focussed on the task in hand …
An excellent reaction to the variety of work from our on-site artists …

8 of these heads will be used to create animations that will be lip-synched animations with local voices from volunteers that were interviewed in The Hubs at an earlier date.

The CAER HEDZ emerge into the light of day from an Iron Age post-hole.
The CAER HEDZ emerge into the light of day from an Iron Age post-hole.

Towards the end of the working day all of these heads were placed in an arrangement around one of the post-hole excavations, emerging, as it were from the deep past!

All photos © Paul Evans 2015



The BIG CAER Geophysics competition!

Here’s your chance to flex your archaeological muscles! Take a look at the amazing results from the latest geophysical survey inside and around the Caerau Ringwork by the CAER team and local volunteers and let us know what you think you can see.

How to Enter? It’s easy!

Take a good look at the two images below – these are the results of the latest geophysical results around Caerau Ringwork. Geophysics helps us ‘see’ under the ground surface without having to dig – see here for an explanation of how geophysics works and how to interpret the results.

Caerau Magentometry
Results of the magnetometry (Young 2015). Base mapping Crown Copyright/databse right 2015. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service



Results of the resisitivity (Young 2015). Base mapping Crown Copyright/databse right 2015. An Ordnance Survey/EDINA supplied service


Study the results from both images very closely to see if you can spot any buildings or other potentially important archaeological features in them. THEN you need to:


Write a short paragraph (maximum 500 words) that tells us what you think you can see


Create an image that tells us what you think you can see


There are two age group categories for this competition.

Ages 8-18

Ages 18 and above

Please can you indicate your age clearly on your entry.

The entrant with the most convincing looking interpretation of the geophys results will win their choice of one of the following great prizes:

For age category 8-18: AN AMAZON KINDLE WORTH £59.00

For age category 18+


  • A free personal flint-knapping workshop with a master flint-knapper for you and a friend in which you will learn how to make a flint tools using the same techniques our Stone Age ancestors at Caerau would have been familiar with.


  • A free amazing weekend archaeology course ‘Shrines Stars and Sacrifice‘ taught by the brilliant Dani Hoffman and exploring the techniques that archaeologists use to understand rituals at prehistoric sites like Caerau.


PLEASE send your interpretations of the results to OR you can drop them into Dave Horton at the Dusty Forge in person (please ensure they are clearly marked with a name, age and contact email or phone number) by 5pm Friday 8th May.

The winner will be decided by the CAER team and will be judged on both archaeological skill and imagination. All decisions are final.

Raising the Roof: How to Build a Roundhouse

Have you ever thought about building a house…not just any house…but an Iron Age roundhouse!? The thought never came to my mind, until I saw a poster next to Dr Olly Davis’s office at the University. St Fagans National History Museum needed the assistance of CAER Heritage Project volunteers to help out and test our knowledge, endurance in a bad weather, and our physical fitness in a bit of experimental archaeology.

John explains all about the Thatching process with the massivce roundhouses in the background
John explains all about the Thatching process with the massive roundhouses in the background

Olly would drive us out to St Fagans every week. The first time we were walking up the little muddy path towards the roundhouse building site, we weren’t sure what to expect. Needless to say, this was something completely new to all of us. But when we reached the end of the path and there was a small opening with two massive roundhouses staring down at us, we just stopped in awe.

If you’ve ever been to St. Fagans, you will know that amazing historic buildings from around Wales have been quite literally taken apart and re-erected, piece-by-piece, at the Museum.

Laying on the heather undercoat
Laying on the heather undercoat

However, the building of Iron Age roundhouses is quite different. These buildings were originally constructed more than 2,000 years ago out of timber and clay, material that has long since decomposed. The roundhouses at St Fagans then are reconstructions, but they are based on excavated archaeological evidence from Bryn Eryr in Anglesey. However, only the ground-plans of the houses at Bryn Eryr survived so this project was all about thinking about how our Iron Age ancestors might have built their homes.

We were to help out with the thatching of the houses. The thatching team at the Museum was led by John Letts, a palaeo-botanist and historic thatch specialist. He gave us a quick introduction and unravelled the story of the construction so far, and told us a little a bit about thatching.

Bundling the straw together for the thatch
Bundling the straw together for the thatch

There is no evidence in the archaeological record of what the roofs looked like, or what the techniques of thatching were in the Iron Age. We learned that the weathering coats and thatching techniques were based on surviving medieval roofs from England and Ireland, and the materials were selected from the array of seeds found in the archaeological record. We tried out several thatching techniques to see which worked best…after all, this is the whole point of experimental archaeology!

Before we were allowed to work on the roof we had to complete a working at height training session. But once we were let loose, it turns out students of archaeology are born thatchers (backup plan!!).

Stuff-thatching the roof
Stuff-thatching the roof
The roof, almost finished!
The roof, almost finished!

If you ever visit St Fagans Museum, this is a house to see and if it’s cold and rainy, gather around the hearth and for a few minutes travel back to the Iron Age, and perhaps try some of John’s Iron Age beer while you’re there.

Admiring our handiwork - Christmas celebration in the roundhouse
Admiring our handiwork – Christmas celebration in the roundhouse

Vesna Podrzaj

For more information about the Bryn Eryr project click here

Postcards from the Past | Postcards to the Future

Future postman ...
Future postman … Photo courtesy of David Owen/NCCPE

Tread softly, don’t forget, we do this for you.


Your Ancestors

On Wednesday 3rd December Paul Evans and Jeff Trask created this unusual encounter for the NCCPE Engage Conference in Bristol. Dressed as characters from the past and from the future (Jeff wore a medieval costume, the identity of the future postman remains something of a mystery), our time-travelling postmen invited conference delegates to write postcards either from the past to the present or from the present to the future*. Around forty highly original, imaginative (and some very moving) postcards were written, and the quality of the handwriting was judged as exemplary by our postman.

Please see below for a few examples, chosen more or less at random from our postbags.

Postcard to the past or postcard to the future?
Postcard to the past or postcard to the future? Photo courtesy of David Owen/NCCPE


Hello Humans!

Be excellent to each other – and don’t eat the red Smarties!

To the future!

Learn from the past & our mistakes. Be open and emotional, responsive & communicative. When aliens come, be their friends!

I hope everything is good for you & that we didn’t mess it up too much.

Charlotte X

We used to enjoy watching people kick balls into nets …

a team called Arsenal were the best at this.

It is OK to be radical

We’ve trodden too heavily on the earth, and forgotten to live in more equitable ways.

We’ve much to learn from the past in terms of the danger of walking heavily and the benefits of walking lightly.

We’ve one earth – engage with it wisely.

The university no longer exists – it becomes public.

Don’t trust the English!

When they come to visit your country to ‘help you out’ they actually plan to stay for 800 years and make you eat potatoes!!!

Dear the Future,

Sorry for breaking the environment and the healthcare system!

Hope you’re all OK!

P.S. Here’s a drawing of a tree in case you don’t know what one looks like X

To whom it may concern,

Let it be noted that you have not been forgotten and we are still learning from the relics you left behind and these experiences bring new engagements and relationships for the future!

Reality TV is a bad idea – don’t do it!

Don’t repeat the same mistakes generations before you have made.

*Even allowing for seasonal disruptions in the temporal continuum, we are confident that all of these postcards will have reached their destination in time for Christmas.


Digging Communities | Connected Communities Festival Part 3: The Connected Communities Banner Procession


In the third of three blog posts, Caer Heritage Project Lead Artist Paul Evans looks back on three creative projects that he was involved in co-curating for the AHRC Connected Communities Festival 2014. 

The Connected Communities Banner Procession arose through a collaborative process involving: Glyn Derw High School & the Healthy Wealthy and Wise Group from Caerau & Ely; St Aloysius School & Dowlais Primary Schools, Merthyr Tydfil; Dr Ellie Byrne, Research Associate for Representing Communities, Cardiff University; Sian Williams, librarian at the South Wales Miners’ Library; Dr David Wyatt from the CAER Heritage Project and Paul Evans, CAER Heritage Project lead artist.

Our designs, which were unveiled during a spectacular procession from Bute Park to Cardiff Bay, were developed during a series of intensive workshops led by Paul Evans in the communities of Caerau & Ely and Merthyr Tydfil. Each workshop was undertaken in the same format, where the young (and not so young) participants first devised a series of circular motifs based on traditional miners’ banner designs – and then invented a powerful slogan to encapsulate a positive message connecting past, present and future.

Banner design workshop with the Healthy, Wealthy and Wise group.
Banner design workshop with the Healthy, Wealthy and Wise group.


Glyn Derw's banner - work in progress ...
Glyn Derw’s banner – work in progress …


Banner design workshop at St Aloysius, Merthyr Tydfal ...
The banner design workshop at St Aloysius, Merthyr Tydfil …
... and at Dowlais.
… and the one at Dowlais.

Digging Communities | Connected Communities Festival Part 2: Photos & Iolo

Photos & Iolo at St Fagans
Photos & Iolo at St Fagans

In the second of three blog posts, Caer Heritage Project Lead Artist Paul Evans looks back on three creative projects that he was involved in co-curating for the AHRC Connected Communities Festival 2014. 

Photos and Iolo is a CAER Heritage Project exhibition format that was developed and co-produced by artist Paul Evans with pupils from Glyn Derw High School, National Museum Wales staff Loveday Williams, Owain Rhys and Ian Daniel, and CAER Heritage Project directors Dave Wyatt and Oliver Davis.

Consisting of a series of re-usable pop-up banners (the very essence of a ‘pop-up’ exhibition in fact), Photos and Iolo is an interactive experience that encourages viewers to get involved with the images on display by searching for the bard Iolo (or Ian Daniel) – cunningly photoshopped into images of Caerau and Ely that were taken by local residents. Once the participants have found Iolo then they are encouraged to take part in a riddle competition (similar to that which takes place in JRR Tolkein’s The Hobbit).

The Riddles in our competition were created by pupils from Glyn Derw High School during a workshop led by Paul Evans and Mel Julian-Jones.

As a reward for getting the riddles correct participants are given either an Iolo t-shirt, carrier bag or a copy of the specially produced booklet featuring images from Caerau and Ely’s recent past. Many of these images come from Nigel Billingham’s remarkable Barnardos project which took place in the 1980s. During this project Barnardos had a Photographer in Residence who worked with local people to create an archive of locally made images.

There are still a few of these beautifully produced publications available – please contact us if you live in Caerau and Ely and would like a copy.



Digging Communities | Connected Communities Festival Part I: The Virtual Trench

Every project has its star …

In the first of three blog posts, Caer Heritage Project Lead Artist Paul Evans looks back on three creative projects that he was involved in co-curating for the AHRC Connected Communities Festival 2014. 

The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Connected Communities Festival 2014 took place on Tuesday 1st and Wednesday 2nd July. Although based at St David’s Hall, Cardiff Bay and Motorpoint Arena, the festival included a number of off-site events and activities – not least of which was another amazing archaeological dig that took place during the festival at Caerau hill fort. Our challenge was to bring elements of the experience of the dig down to the bay – to create a ‘Virtual Trench’.

The Virtual Trench, which was created and designed in collaboration with Chopshop consisted of a fairly imposing structure that bore a graphic timeline of events around its outer surface:

The Virtual Dig at St David's, Cardiff Bay
The Virtual Dig at St David’s, Cardiff Bay

This structure formed a customised projection booth, within which we projected footage real-time from the Caerau dig as was it taking place on the hill fort:

Footage from the dig taking place at Caerau is projected inside The Virtual Dig ...
Footage from the dig taking place at Caerau is projected inside The Virtual Dig …

Visitors to the festival were encouraged to ‘excavate’ The Virtual Trench and, under the guidance of CAER Heritage Project archaeologists and community volunteers, use genuine tools and specialised techniques to uncover real finds from the real dig.

Special screening of the 'Caeraustock' short films ..
Special screening of the ‘Caeraustock’ short films ..

A special screening of the ‘Caeraustock’ short films – created by local cameraman Viv Thomas and LightTrap films with Michaelston College – added a further layer of visual depth and interaction to the installation. A video of CAER Heritage Project Director Dr David Wyatt discussing The Virtual Trench can be viewed here.

Many thanks to Ian Gracey for invaluable assistance with transport and construction of The Virtual Trench and Paul Kemble and our student helpers: Penni Bestic, Heather Crowley, Cath Horler-Underwood, Melissa Julian Jones, and Aron Williams for welcoming visitors to stand over the duration of the festival.


A visit to Caerau – On Shared Ground – 16th-19th July 2014

Read on for a fantastic new blog about a project to link the sites of Caerau, Cardiff and Wincobank, Sheffield…

As Friends of Wincobank Hill we were intrigued by the On Shared Ground initiative.

We knew that very few hillforts have survived in urban areas for obvious reasons and felt a link with the similarly placed sites in Cardiff and Aberdeen and had met with some of the people from Caerau when they came to Wincobank. We hope sometime to have the opportunity to visit the hillfort on Bennachie near Aberdeen too.

KenandHil (2)
Ken is very proud to get his hands on a CAER Heritage T-Shirt!

We have long been fascinated by ancient sites, for differing reasons. The link with our long-ago ancestors and the ways they expressed and satisfied their human needs and desires and the search for knowledge and understanding about the world and their own place in it,sheds light on our own condition.

We found obvious similarities between Wincobank and Caerau. Immediately noticeable was the lack of local awareness, (no-one we asked could tell us how to get there), and the sound of a nearby busy road, ours being the M1- theirs the A4232. The physical locations of both hillforts are similar being on ‘Hog Back’ sandstone formations. Both hillforts overlook significant rivers: Caerau has the River Ely and Wincobank has the mighty Don! Both leading eventually to the sea and navigable in earlier times.

Seeing how much of a long, detailed history of settlement has become evident through the finds from the two archaeological digs at Caerau, from the neolithic age to the present day has opened our eyes to the possible long history of settlement on the wider reaches of Wincobank Hill. Evidence of this is now, sadly, probably lost through urban development and the covering up by council rubbish dumps, making   allotments and playing fields over what old maps indicated was an “ Ancient Settlement”. People have living memory of cottages and of Wincobank Hall – a meeting place for famous activists in the anti- slavery and social reform movement: as valuable a history as any other.

It was of great interest to actually witness the finding of relics from the past and to realise the significance of different layers and colours of soil through talking to the archaeology students on the dig,and to see the involvement of local schoolchildren. We were able to handle some recent finds, a piece of a pottery bowl from the neolithic period and an axe head ,and to marvel at the careful decoration on a household pot from the first century BC. Arrowheads and flint scrapers from the Neolithic and Bronze Ages are constantly turning up plus a medieval arrowhead and a lead musket ball from c.1700AD.

KenandHil (1)
Ken and Hil watch the first showing of the On Shared Ground film by artist Paul Evans

Whilst we were there a new stone- based road was uncovered that looked as though it was leading along one edge of the site towards the church or possibly a strengthening of the outer edge of the hillfort. The evidence of Caerau being an ancient sacred site include a recent find of a small lead curse roll only found in Roman temples and the medieval church, used up till the1970’s. This is typical of how people have regarded the significance of high places since the earliest of times. Although our chapel does not fulfil this criteria, not being placed on the top of the hill, it is highly likely that were we able to look for it, evidence of this kind of activity would be found. Joseph Hunter, a Sheffield   archaeologist, ‘ gave an account of round ‘tumuli’ situated close to the hillfort at Wincobank until the late 18th century. These features resembled ‘barrows ‘that Hunter had observed at other sites and comprised ‘two or three round tumuli….near the summit , and therefore near the great earthwork’. (Gatty 1869,24). (Copied from the desk-based assessment -ArcHeritage Project No.5462).

We visited Tinkinswood and St. Lythan’s chambered tombs built c.3,700BC. situated within a few miles of the Caerau site. Here, for the first time, we came across two sturdy metal devices that enclosed recorded information about the tombs that could be accessed through turning a handle This seemed an interesting and weather-proof way of communicating with visitors.

As a look-out post, a defensible space, a statement of ownership, a focal gathering place for the community and a site of liminal significance, both hillforts are superbly placed They were a supremely important for these reasons in the past and their value should be recognised giving the areas around a meaning for the the widest community that they may have been felt to lack. Friends of Wincobank Hill have joined with the On Shared Ground project in recording local people’s memories and feelings about the hill. This will be a valuable and more recent resource for conserving its long, fascinating history and perhaps helping people’s perception of these spaces to evolve constructively. Involving the local schools in the ways that we at Wincobank are doing, and what we saw at Caerau on our visit, may be a means of ensuring that there will be no further erosion of the integrity of these sites by highlighting their significance within the community and beyond.

Ken and Hilary Allen

Finding Caerau – Part Two

The Case of the Missing Mountain: CHP Historian Mel Julian-Jones continues her search for the origins of Caerau…

Now armed with the knowledge that we might have a different name to search for – Cairdwygil, and variant spellings thereof – the search for Caerau continues through the Middle Ages. Now we hit some real problems.

The rate of survival for the acta and letters of the bishops of Llandaff is not ideal. Only three definite acts of Bishop Uhtred survive, although Uhtred was bishop for about ten years. Bishop Nicholas’s average is a little under one surviving act per year, and remains on average one per year until the time of Bishop William de Braose, when the average survival is one act for every four years. Bear in mind that a bishop would be almost constantly dealing with administration and sending letters, dealing with problems, and writing to his various churches throughout each year of his episcopate. For example, there are 219 acts surviving for Bishop Robert Chesney of Lincoln, and only 30 for Bishop Nicholas. In fact, the 219 acts of Bishop Robert are just under double the total number of surviving acts for Llandaff from 1140-1287. The statistical chances of finding an act specifically relating to Caerau or Caerdwygil are tiny. And, in fact, there isn’t one. Not a single one. We have no idea how many acts there were to begin with, so we don’t know exactly how many we’ve lost – but it could be anything from 85-99% of them. So more than likely all the acts relating to Caerau or Caerdwygil are in that missing proportion of acts. And that doesn’t help us AT ALL. Depressingly, Llandaff acta have a pretty good rate of survival for a Welsh diocese – far better than St David’s! [See, Llandaff Episcopal Acta 1140-1287, ed. David Crouch, (Cardiff, 1988), pp. xxxii-xxxiii].

Papal Bulls for 1119 (Pope Calixtus II), and the bulls of Pope Honorius II for 1128 and 1129 all confirm the villam of ‘Cairduicil’ with its chapel to the diocese of Llandaff, but after 1129 there is no further reference to this name. The official switch from its ancient name of ‘Dinduicil’ to ‘Cairduicil’ was not the last name-change it went through – at some point in the twelfth century the name shortened to ‘Caer’ and became ‘Caerau’ to reflect the presence of a second fortification. This could have happened unofficially and naturally in the vernacular or oral culture of the area prior to 1128 or 1119, of course, as the pope was unlikely to know himself the current local names of various places, and the Bulls simply copy the list of original (and in this case, ninth century) place names which Llandaff had provided. The change from ‘Cairduicil’ to variant spellings of the modern-day ‘Caerau’ only reflects the shift in what people were calling it, rather than officially marking the change. An undated thirteenth century charter of Caradoc, son of Gruffudd Began, grants land in ‘Lan Leuder near Caerau’ to Walter de Regny. [See, Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, vol. III, 1271-1331, ed. G. T. Clark, (Cardiff, 1910), pp. 755-56]. The Latin reads, …et alterum capud tnedit se ad metas de la KAYRE …, but the geographical identifier ‘Began’ and the presence of Robert de Sumery, William de Barri the younger and Elias of St Michael on the witness list puts it in the Cardiff area and implies that this is indeed our Caerau. The next charter in the collection is one of Pagan de Regny granting a meadow in Papelmore (Dinas Powys) to Walter de Regny, which again would place the gift of lands near Kayre as being near Caerau. [See, Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, vol. III, 1271-1331, ed. G. T. Clark, (Cardiff, 1910), p. 756].

Map of Cardiff in 1840 showing various placenames. Map from Cardiff Library Collection
Map of Cardiff in 1840 showing various placenames. Map from Cardiff Library Collection

Interestingly, from c.1196, a family bearing the locative(?) surname ‘Kairus’ or ‘Cairus’ is to be found in Glamorgan. It is unclear whether this is a locative or not, as it lacks the ‘de’ (meaning ‘of’, typical in locative surnames) and if it is, there are so many caerau to which it might refer that the name itself is not that helpful or defining. However, it is likely to be a locative surname because Caerau and Caer are Welsh terms, and the first names of these men are John and Milo, typical Norman or ‘Anglo-Norman’ names. What is more, they are likely to be middling knights, probably not important enough to have their own coat of arms, but they do seem to have their own seals, which they used to authenticate their gifts to Margam abbey [See, Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, vol. II, 1196-1270, ed. G. T. Clark, (Cardiff, 1910), p. 432). Milo’s seal is a round seal in red wax, 1.5 in. in diameter, and shows a fleur-de-lis of elaborate design. Fleurs-de-lys were quite common symbols to use on seals, and there are several examples of South-Eastern Marchers under Gilbert de Clare’s lordship using such a device around this time, including William Cantilupe of Merthyr Mawr, and William de Sumery [See, NLW_PM 2050]. The land given to Margam was near Swansea rather than Cardiff, however, which leads me to suspect that they are from a different Caer, perhaps the Caer found in the Gower. However, the witnesses to the charters may shed light on the personal networks of these men, and they do seem to indicate a connection with our area of interest.

Firstly, the original charter to Margam Abbey was for a pasture, but in the time of Bishop Henry (1193-1218) the original grant was in dispute [See, Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, vol. I, 447-1218, ed. G. T. Clark, (Cardiff, 1910), pp. 214-15]. John had long ago conceded the pasture to the monks because of a great offence (unspecified in the grant) that he and his son Milo had caused them. So as not to trouble the monks unjustly, John surrendered the pasture to the monks in this grant, and his son Milo swore an oath, touching holy relics in front of the bishop, that he would be ever faithful and obedient to the monks in all things and warrant the pasture against everyone with all his power [See, Llandaff Episcopal Acta 1140-1287, ed. David Crouch, (Cardiff, 1988), p. 45]. The actual date of this dispute is probably sometime in the 1190s, certainly before 1200, when Milo is found quitclaiming the land to the monks [See, NLW_291]. Milo is here named Milo de Penvey – it specifically states that his father was John Kairus. On the same roll, which covers 1200×1275, Milo de Penvey’s nephew Milo son of ‘Cadivor’ (a Welshman whose name has been Latinized by the scribe, one would assume) also gives or confirms lands to Margam, which includes the lands ‘his grandfather, John Kairus, gave to the monks’. Penvey is Pen-y-Fai, near modern-day Bridgend, and so it is more likely that John Kairus or Kayrus came from a nearer ‘Caer’, and is unconnected with the hillfort. However, Milo de Penvey’s grant is witnessed by Elias Fleming and his brother William Fleming, members of the same family who were lords of Michaelstone-super-Ely in the fourteenth century, as well as lords of St George’s and Wenvoe, which is an interesting connection in our context. Added to this, we are also told in Milo de Pevney’s confirmation that the land John Kairus gave to Margam bordered lands belonging to Herbert Scurlag, whose family did have lands in the county of Cardiff as well as the fee of Langewi (Llangyfelach) in the Swansea area [See, Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, vol. II, 1196-1270, ed. G. T. Clark, (Cardiff, 1910), pp. 432-33]. Sadly, without a surviving inquisition post mortem detailing the lands in Milo or John’s possession when they died, we are unable to tell if they too had any lands in the Cardiff area as well as around Bridgend – but given the (albeit slim) evidence of personal connections with families in the right area, it is not inconceivable. However, I will still tentatively suggest that this is not the right family, particularly as my own research into family strategy indicates that families who ‘spiritually invested’ by granting lands to the church tended only to give to churches and foundations with strong connections to their power centres – which in this case seems to be the Bridgend/Pen-y-fai area, and not Caerau or the county of Cardiff. Nevertheless, I will keep them in mind and continue to look them up in the records as a possibility, just to be sure.

This deceptive little rabbit hole aside, we find much firmer ground with the various taxation records for the thirteenth century. Here, Caerau is certainly a prebend of Llandaff, and an important one at that.

The Synodal Rating of the Churches in the Deanaries of Llandaff offers an interesting insight into the relative status of Caerau as a prebend of Llandaff. Caerau is the second prebend to be listed in Calendar or Register of the tenth collection of tax to the work of the Pope or King of England of individual churches in the diocese of Llandaff whose amount exceeded the sum of six marks [See, Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, vol. III, 1271-1331, ed. G. T. Clark, (Cardiff, 1910), p. 944]. The first of the prebends listed is that of St Andrew’s, 6s. and 5d. over the amount; Caerau, listed next as Prebenda de KAYR cum capell’, is 14s. 8d. over. The first church listed is Llanririd. The churches of Peterston with its chapel, St George’s and St Fagans follow it in that order, each being varying amounts over the six marks. The list appears to be typically compiled in terms of status rather than value or geographical or alphabetical order. The temporalities of the bishop are at the top of the list, followed by the Chapter, the Archdeaconate, the Precentor, the Treasurer, and the Chancellor, with the prebends following, then the churches, then the vicarages. [See, Cartae et Munimenta de Glamorgan, vol. III, 1271-1331, ed. G. T. Clark, (Cardiff, 1910), p. 944].

Being valued in the papal tax of 1291 at £4 is fairly significant, too – that’s the rough equivalent of around £2,000 today. That was more than a craftsman in the building trade earned in a year, even if he worked solidly for the full 365 days and took no Sundays or holy days off. In fact, in 1291, £4 would buy you roughly 400 working days of a craftsman’s time. [See The National Archives Currency Converter Tool,].

But this is information we already know – I’m just as interested in the reference to the chapel here. Note that ‘chapel’ is not necessarily referring to the church – a chapel was set up for perpetual memorial of someone and their spouse, heirs and/or ancestors, and provided for in the founder’s will to support priests or chaplains whose task was to say mass for those souls in perpetual memoriam. Private manorial chapels were set up within the manors of the affluent laity, so that they did not necessarily need to worship in the parish churches. William (II) de Cantilupe established a chapel at his manor of Eyton in Bedfordshire, for example, as part of his lavish and impressive additions in the 1240s. So who was the chapel at Caerau founded by, and who was it for?

Sadly, this is probably something we may not find out. I’d like to look more closely at the ecclesiastic angle as far as possible, but I also want to delve further into the personal aspect of Caerau as a place – who was living here, working here, and worshipping here? Sadly, because it was a possession of Llandaff and the patchy nature of surviving sources has already been explained, it may be impossible to look at individuals at Caerau in this way. On the other hand, the nearby village of Michaelston-super-Ely was in the hands of several Marcher families throughout the period, and it is possible to look at those families and to get a picture of their personal networks throughout the area and beyond. As the CAER Heritage Project is seeking to expand into researching this deserted village, as well as the Caerau ringwork, I will be looking further into this as the research progresses. I would love to be able to build up pictures of the medieval men and women who were once familiar and powerful figures in the area, and reintroduce them to modern-day residents as part of the rich tapestry of local stories and heritage this part of Cardiff has to offer.